Medicine is advancing by leaps and bounds, to the extent that life expectancy is getting longer and in several countries exceeds 75 years, which was unimaginable many years ago. But it didn’t happen from day to day. This is the result of the efforts of scientists who worked hard for the welfare of mankind.
For this reason, here we will talk about the 10 most prominent winners of the Nobel Prize in Medicine of the last century.
Ronald Ross. in 1902
Scottish doctor Ronald Ross He won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902. Thank you discoveries about malariain which he was able to show how it entered the body and, based on this, helped develop methods to combat it.
He began studying malaria in 1892 and in 1894, he decided to check whether mosquitoes are really connected with the spread of this disease, as Laveran’s and Manson’s hypothesis points to. After almost 3 years of failure, he was finally able to show himself What was the life cycle of the malaria parasite? in the case of mosquitoes, it greatly helps in the fight against them.
Ivan Pavlov. in 1904
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was known in the medical world for experiment with dogswhich led to what is now known in the medical terminology as “classical conditioning“, which is also called “Pavlovian”. This consists of an associative learning method in which the organism in question reacts to the stimulus. For your experiments with fangs, received the Nobel Prize in 1904.
Today, his findings are studied at all psychological universities and educational sciences as a basic principle of learning. According to his work, he is one of the most significant researchers in history.
Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod. in 1923
Frederick Banting is recognized as “the father of insulin“, which led to a medical invention which it has helped so much and continues to help people with diabetes. Because of his work, November 14th is “World Diabetes Day”, the exact date Banting was born. Canadian researcher and British doctor Macleod wrote a fundamental part of medical history based on his work, which led to receives the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1923.
Research on pancreatic secretions led them to detect insulin and therefore save the lives of diabetics.
Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain, Howard Walter Florey. in 1945
These 3 researchers worked together on discover penicillinwhereby shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1945. That’s how they started the age of antibioticsperhaps the greatest advance in the history of therapeutic medicine.
Although this took place in the United Kingdom, the United States played a fundamental role in large-scale production to aid soldiers in World War II. Procedure removed initial restrictions medical supplies and made them available to save lives.
Max Theiler. in 1951
This South African doctor virologist won the Nobel Prize in 1951 for his discoveries about yellow fever and how to fight it. In 1922, he began researching amoebic dysentery, tried to create a vaccine against rat-bite fever, and worked with Andrew Sellards on yellow fever.
In 1937, after a vicious epidemic in West Africa, he and his partner Hugh Smith announced the creation of the 17-D vaccine made to fight yellow fever. 14 years later, he won the biggest award in his region.
Selman Abraham Waxman. in 1952
American biochemist Waksman discovered the first really effective antibiotic against tuberculosiswhose medical terminology is “streptomycin”. The above-mentioned finding is significant in the supine position awarded him the Nobel Prize in 1952.
During his life he studied several things, but the most prominent was that of how pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed. The first antibiotic discovered by Waksman was actinomycin, although at first it could not be used because it was very poisonous. One of his students, Albert Schatz, discovered streptomycin in 1943, and after a few legal battlesIt was Waksman who finally received the highest recognition.
Peyton Rous. in 1966
Peyton Rous was a key American physician in the history of medicine to develop methods that enabled the detection of two steps in the development of cancer: initiation and manifestation. In this way, he showed that it can be generated by various agents, whether chemical, viral, radiological or mechanical.
In 1911, he managed to isolate a virus from a cancerous tumor in chickens, which he infected other animals with and saw the same problem develop. For your job, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine in 1966.
Max Delbruck, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria. in 1969
In 1969 for knowledge related to the reproductive mechanism and genetic composition of the virus, these 3 researchers received the Nobel Prize for Medicine. Luria was strongly politically engaged and, along with other scientists, was against nuclear war experiments and the Vietnam War.
Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini. in 1986
Biochemist Stanley Cohen and Italian neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini were awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries related to nerve growth factors. They were so relevant that they pioneered the understanding of cell growth in animals.
Thanks to your work, today it is easier to understand the causes of certain pathogenic processessuch as degenerative mutations and hereditary defects.
Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas. in 1990
in in 1990Donnall Thomas and Joseph Murray shared the Nobel Drug for his discoveries in cell and organ transplantationMurray was one of the pioneers in kidney transplantation. Both were able to resolve organ rejection in transplants, preventing this problem from reoccurring